Monday, July 1, 2013

Google celebrates 1048 of the birth of Ibn al-Haytham

Birth and early life

Ibn al-Haytham, born in the city of Basra in Iraq years 354-965 ad, in the era was booming in the Sciences of mathematics, astronomy, medicine and others, worked on the study of geometry, optics and read the books his predecessors from Greece and the world scientists Andalusian Zahrawi and others in this area, he wrote several letters written in those sciences and contributed the main norm-setting, and complete what he has started big world Zahrawi.
His most famous work

Landscape (or light)-Eclipse-Lunar Parallax-see planets-alert on the error monitoring-reared with-assets size-columns triangles-cat Holocaust and mirrors-Mirrors Holocaust Chambers-how come the shades-letter in the twilight-explain the origins of Euclid in engineering and the number-the whole of the assets of the account-engineering analysis-analysis of issues of multilateralism. Why alhazen more than 80 books and a letter, offering to the planets and the Moon and celestial bodies and their dimensions.
His influence on modern science

Ibn al-Haytham phenomena studied the refraction of light and its reflection in detail, and bucking the old views as theories of Ptolemy, denied that vision by rays emitted from the eye, and laid the fundamentals of eye lenses and explain the full postmortem.
His death

Ibn al-Haytham died in Cairo in Egypt year 1038 CE at the age of 73.

Philosophers of ancient Greece and research scientists in the science of light, and not thorough or in-depth research, Euclid went on his research to the eye occur in transparent medium body between them and the fortune-teller rays emit, and the stuff that is this beam insight, which has no insight, and the things that great view angle of insight, and that insight from small angle you see small, and research in the science of light in this Ark without progress or upgrade, even with al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham They corrected these errors, and the science of light strides, which did not inform him before, and not beyond after many centuries later.

Although Ibn al-Haytham's place and research innovations in the science of light, it has remained obscure, unknown to many people, and that they have from God revealing his efforts and evacuated, rest in oblivion, the Arab world was Mustafa clean one of these, he wrote his pioneering study published by the University of Cairo in two volumes, where hectic reading manuscripts of Ibn al Haitham and hundreds of references, even the honest fact that Ibn al-Haytham is the author of foundations of the science of light in the modern sense.
Birth and upbringing

Basra was the birth of Abby on al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham (354 e = 965 m), and it grew up and learn, nothing is known about its origins, only that first lived in a prosperous period, where the captains of science in philosophy, medicine, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, just reached out this science accept them with relentless vigour and determination are not addressed here, read what was under the hands of advanced and retarded wrote, not only to see and read, but meant to RID and memoranda and letters on the topics of science, the workers in this Science, in which the classification so long is his fame, and heard by the Fatimid Caliph al-hakem, hoped for the same use, and increased his desire that brought him what Ibn al-Haytham: "if I worked in Egypt for gaining the benefit gets work in each of the cases of deficiency," Ibn al-Haytham in this period has exceeded the 60-year-old, best known in the Islamic world as a world he views engineering and jurisprudence.
In Cairo

The Governor wished to Ibn al-Haytham to come to Egypt and stability, since him, arrived and asked to perform what about Nile, Hassan went to Aswan with a group of industry professionals in construction work for them to implement his idea that I came up with him, however, to preview the site chosen for the implementation of the project and does not fit with what they thought, and that its implementation is almost impossible, the body building on the Nile at the time beyond the means of his time and beyond his men, al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham returned ashamed to Cairo, and apologized to the Caliph, pretending to accept the excuse, and some governors offices, by Ibn al-Haytham AWE does not desire, and if the Governor to make it fairer in a clique of them scientists in the Dar Al Hikma and its dismissal, it would like to set for this action, which used the life of research and study.

But he took the job was to make it immune to the whims of the Governor's reckless, a Moody, quick and heavy-handed, Ibn al-Haytham feared such fluctuations, and at the same time not able to abandon his work and withdraw; for fear of treachery of the Governor is God, did not find a way to get rid of the only allegation crazy and show to gawk and dementia, since the ruling was so isolated from the Office and confiscated his assets and ordered his detention in his home, and make it serve him, and the world has been intelligent, sad situation So the Governor is God died, re-surfaced and engaging science, Dara settled near Al-Azhar mosque, Cairo established workers with science and classification and copies of old books until he died in (430 e = 1038 m).
Scientific activity and his discoveries

Ibn al-Haytham was a prolific author-streaming production in various types of knowledge, methods and logic philosophy, medicine, astronomy, optics, mathematics, novel new types of scientific thought, and the number of his compositions as well as composer for 200 messages and other articles, one wonders: how has life for man to compose all of the books in different branches of science, with its precision and abundant science and innovation? But thanks to God he benefits.

Ibn al-Haytham was a in optics nearly twenty-four subject between book and letter and an article, but most of these books have been lost, of the scientific heritage, and what remained of it was annexed by the Istanbul and London libraries and others have recognized the great writing of lost "scenes" which contained innovative theories in the science of light, the main reference for this information until the 17th century after being translated into Latin.

And al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham was the first of Euclid's theory and other error in the light beam emitted from the eye and the Visual pornography, decided to reverse this theory, that ray of light emerges from Visual pornography thing is eyes, and those with experience and seen that ray of light stretch is on a straight line.

Ibn al-Haytham and transparent objects, and is implemented by the light and understands the vision beyond such as air, water, and light if implemented from transparent to translucent sagged on the integrity of another.

Research on diffraction when optical effect in the air surrounding the Earth, the air density in the lower layers greater than in the upper layers, and air does not extend to non-end, but ends at a certain height, if a beam of light passed through these layers of different density, it refracts slowly and gradually bend towards the ground, it follows that the star or planet watching him eye appears in position closer to the real position and noted the resulting error Monitoring and should be corrected.

Al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham described how the vision, and the installation of the eye, and the whole of its parts of the business, was a vision to be the photo video on what we now call "retinal" transition impact through the optic nerve, and seeing one thing though seen two eyes of two images on the same parts of the retina, and dealt with the subject of lenses and enlarge. What is written on this subject clear to use lenses to fix defects in the eye.
These efforts have had an impact in advancing the science of light and paper assessment of scientists, as George Sutton, a senior historian of science "is the greatest Muslim physicist, one of the world leading scientists who searched on optics in all the ages", has translated its research in the optics into Latin and Italian, according to Kepler and relied on its research, the bottom line is that Ibn al-Haytham made learnt new tincture, take light and other childhood origins arises first, so its impact on the science of light-like effect in science Mechanics, information on the science of light by Ibn al-Haytham sporadic not linked URL, he searched well, turn in his face was not preceded by a kiss, fix errors and deficiencies, and developed research, invented the new disclosures, or compose of all unit apartment threaded, and established the basis on which it was based--the science of light.

Besides his contributions to geometry, and a fifty-eight authors, including his views and hoped there were issues about innovative Euclid warkhmids without proof or needed to explain and prove. There are libraries in Cairo, London, Paris and Istanbul more than twenty-one susceptibilities of Ibn al-Haytham in this theme, and in the account and the corresponding algebra and a least ten books, there is only a few manuscripts in the library of Atef in Turkey: account transactions, extract numerical issue.

In astronomy, Ibn al-Haytham created and contributed actively to "Ptolemy II", and did not hear back from the legacy of alhazen in the astronomers only about seventeen of twenty-four in order, on the dimensions and sizes of the celestial bodies and how to see them.

And in two books: one in medicine "medical" industry calendar in thirty books read summary of Galen, and other "article in reply to ABI Faraj ' Abd-Allaah ibn al-Tayyib heroes banner where the violation of Galen, and also a letter in the anatomy of the eye and vision.

Its transmission to Europe

Meant Kamal al-Din Ibn al-Haitham Research Persian in optics and studied thoroughly and a type known as "revision corresponding to those with vision and insights, this book knew through Europe a lot about Ibn al-Haytham and his work in the science of light, where the publication of this book as a translator in the Switzerland (980 = 1572), that had been published before the invention of printing by Gerard de Cremona" months translators in Spain, consider creating the largest group of astronomical years (676 e = 1277 m) for scientists The Arabs, these books benefited from Spain and Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean Marine their flights thanks to astronomical alaziag (astronomical tables) and sports information left by Arab scholars.

Through these translations of Ibn al-Haytham's work influenced Roger Bacon John bekam wevitlo in their research, the book of John bekham got only perspective quote less of Ibn al-Haytham's book of optics and either book, read written years (666 = 1270 m) there is a large section of Ibn al-Haytham, and findings.


Post a Comment